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Histoire

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A+ A A-

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Histoire du Parlement

Le Sénat de la République d'Haïti

(1806-2012) 206 années d'existence

Le plus vieux de l'Amérique

Consacré en décembre 1806, les premiers sénateurs au nombre de 24 siégèrent dans une maison sise à l'intersection de la rue de Rohan et de la rue des Miracles.

Durant les premiers jours de l'année 1807 le Sénat fut transféré à Léogane. Au départ de Christophe les sénateurs revinrent à Port-au-Prince et s'installèrent dans un local sis à la rue du magasin de l'état propriété du Sénateur Lys. Peu de temps après ils transportèrent leurs assises dans une maison de la rue du centre ou se trouve aujourd'hui la bibliothèque nationale.

Cette chambre fondatrice du parlementarisme en Haïti respectueusement désignée sous l'appellation de ""Grand Corps"" a été un organe de la révolution sociale et humaine alors en cours et une tribune de promotion de la liberté et de l'indépendance nationale, pour les pays de l'Amérique en lutte contre l'oppression coloniale.

Durant les deux siècles écoulés le Sénat haïtien vivier de personnages emblématiques tels que: Alexandre Pétion, César Télémaque, Jean Price Mars, Emile St Lot, Jean Louis Barlatier, etc.

Entre 1957 et 1961 à l'avènement de la dictature du Duvaliériste, le Sénat a disparu du paysage législatif et une chambre unique, la chambre des députés a été instrumentée et assujettie aux intérêts du régime.

Enfin au triomphe du mouvement revendicatif de 1986, la constitution de 1987 inaugura un nouveau régime politique, elle consacra la prépondérance du pouvoir législatif sur l'exécutif en soumettant le gouvernement au contrôle des chambres.

Installé provisoirement dans un bâtiment au boulevard du fond de mer à Port-au-Prince après la destruction du palais législatif lors du séisme du 12 janvier 2010. Le Sénat évolue en toute indépendance à l'abri de la dissolution et de toute sanction, sa souveraineté est garantie par le principe de la séparation des pouvoirs, par l'immunité et l'inamovibilité de ses membres.

Attribution- Le Sénat exerce d'immenses pouvoirs: Il participe au choix des juges nommés à la cour de cassation, approuve la nomination du DG de la police, les ambassadeurs et les conseils généraux; élit directement les membres de la cour supérieure des comptes, fait des lois, ratifie les accords et il peut s'ériger en haute cour de justice.

Pour garantir la gouvernance du système le sénat siège en permanence

Le Sénat de la République est constitué de trente sénateurs (30), trois départements (3), ils sont élus pour six ans au suffrage universel direct. Conjointement avec la chambre des députés ils se réunissent en assemblée nationale selon les prescrits de la constitution à l'ouverture et à la fermeture des sessions.

Le Sénat de la République est administré par un bureau de cinq membres;

Ainsi constitué: d'un Président, d'un Vice-Président, d'un Questeur, et de deux Secrétaires.


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